Today, it includes many typical international foods. The Constituent Assembly passed a sweeping land reform expropriating large estates, and adopted a new highly liberal constitution establishing Estonia as a parliamentary democracy. Main article: Languages of Estonia The official language, Estonian, belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. Today's education in Estonia is divided into general, vocational, and hobby. The cabinet carries out the country's domestic and foreign policy, shaped by parliament; it directs and co-ordinates the work of government institutions and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power. They are organized under the Latin Apostolic Administration of Estonia. A simplified tax system with flat rates and low indirect taxation, openness to foreign investment, and a liberal trade regime have supported the resilient and well-functioning economy. Many Estonians went into the forest, starting an anti-Soviet guerrilla campaign. Soviets evacuated Tallinn in late August with massive losses, and capture of the Estonian islands was completed by German forces in October. Main article: Viking Age in Estonia The areas of Northern and Western Estonia belonged in the Scandinavian cultural sphere during the Viking Age. The kannel is a native instrument that is now again becoming more popular in Estonia. The following are links to international rankings of Estonia. In July, German Wehrmacht reached south Estonia. Apart from a few albeit remarkable exceptions, this archaic form has not been much employed in later times. Opposition candidates were allowed to participate, but only as independents, while opposition parties remained banned. Oil shale energy, telecommunications, textiles, chemical products, banking, services, food and fishing, timber, shipbuilding, electronics, and transportation are key sectors of the economy. The historic were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finnic. Estonia has a moderate number of public and private universities. The current government has pursued tight fiscal policies, resulting in balanced budgets and low public debt. The environmental Phosphorite War campaign became the first major protest movement against the central government. Mammals present in Estonia include the grey wolf, lynx, brown bear, red fox, badger, wild boar, moose, red deer, roe deer, beaver, otter, grey seal, and ringed seal. The next year, Sweden invaded Western Estonia, but were repelled by the Oeselians. Only a puppet collaborationist administration was established, and occupied Estonia was merged into Reichskommissariat Ostland, with its economy being fully subjugated to German military needs. At the same time Estonia imports machinery and equipment, chemical products, textiles, food products and transportation equipment. An Estonian national congress was convened and demanded the unification of Estonian areas into a single autonomous territory and an end to Russification. The older folksongs are also referred to as , songs in the poetic metre the tradition shared by all Baltic Finns. There were a number of late prehistoric or medieval harbour sites on the coast of Saaremaa, but none have been found that are large enough to be international trade centres. There is no other status distinction between them.
Estonia. Main article: List of cities and towns in Estonia Tallinn is the capital and the largest city of Estonia, and lies on the northern coast of Estonia, along the Gulf of Finland. The official Head of State is the President of Estonia, who gives assent to the laws passed by Riigikogu, also having the right of sending them back and proposing new laws. Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when "Estonian Vikings" defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar. Today, it is also very popular to grill outside in summer. Protected by their stone walls and alliance with the Hansa, prosperous cities like Reval and Dorpat repeatedly defied other rulers of Livonia. Together with Lithuania, Poland, and Latvia, the country considered participating in constructing the Visaginas nuclear power plant in Lithuania to replace the Ignalina. The majority of Livonia accepted Polish rule, while Reval and the nobles of Northern Estonia swore loyalty to the Swedish king, and the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek sold his lands to the Danish king. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD. The Chief Justice is appointed by the parliament for nine years on nomination by the president. The Estonian Orthodox Church, affiliated with the Russian Orthodox Church, is the primary Orthodox denomination. The municipalities in Estonia cover the entire territory of the country. Estonian Russians have developed their own identity – more than half of the respondents recognised that Estonian Russians differ noticeably from the Russians in Russia. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing. Käenduseta laenud väikseima laen. In March, the Soviet Air Force carried out heavy bombing raids against Tallinn and other Estonian towns. Kiirlaen 50 eurot SMS laenud ilma tuvastamada. The Soviets established a regime of oppression; most of the high-ranking civil and military officials, intelligentsia and industrialists were arrested, and usually executed soon afterwards. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Today, Estonia's constitution guarantees freedom of religion, separation of church and state, and individual rights to privacy of belief and religion.. A wide network of schools and supporting educational institutions have been established. In the Estonian language the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was , meaning "country people" or "people of the soil". Estonian clubs also participate in European and regional competitions. Lenna Kuurmaa is a very popular singer in Europe, with her band Vanilla Ninja. Similar threats appeared in the east, where Russian principalities were expanding westward. A new direction is to offer those services present in Estonia to the non-residents via e-residency program. Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. Numerous forced labour camps were established where thousands of Estonians, foreign Jews, Romani, and Soviet prisoners of war perished. Voters have a chance to invalidate their electronic vote in traditional elections, if they wish to. The rule of law remains strongly buttressed and enforced by an independent and efficient judicial system. In recent years many local and foreign companies have been investing in renewable energy sources. The Estonian National Defence Policy aim is to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters, airspace and its constitutional order. Other polls suggest the country is broadly split between Christians and the non-religious / religiously undeclared. Estonian is closely related to Finnish, spoken in Finland, across the other side of the Gulf of Finland, and is one of the few languages of Europe that is not of an Indo-European origin. Its economic basis was formed by widespread farm buyouts by peasants, forming a class of Estonian landowners. Estonia has retained conscription unlike Latvia and Lithuania and has no plan to transition to a professional army. Päts, together with general Johan Laidoner and Kaarel Eenpalu, established an authoritarian regime, where the parliament was dissolved and the newly established Patriotic League became the only legal political party. It is even claimed that Estonia has the most startups per person in world.The Estonian electricity network forms a part of the Nord Pool Spot network. Although the Estonian and Germanic languages are of very different origins, one can identify many similar words in Estonian and German, for example. The political culture is stable in Estonia, where power is held between two and three parties that have been in politics for a long time. The large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes. George's Night Uprising, encompassing the whole area of Northern-Estonia and Saaremaa. Eastern Orthodoxy is practised chiefly by the Russian minority. Living standards under the Soviet occupation kept falling further behind nearby independent Finland. The President, however, does not use these rights very often, having a largely ceremonial role. Sport plays an important role in Estonian culture. This situation is similar to other countries in Northern Europe. Estonia has numerous fens and bogs. The Estonian education system consists of state, municipal, public, and private institutions. The Russian language was used throughout the education system and many Estonian social and cultural activities were suppressed. The Soviets initiated a policy of collectivization, but as peasants remained opposed to it a campaign of terror was unleashed. Since re-establishing independence, Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Weapons found in Estonian Viking Age graves are common to types found throughout Northern Europe and Scandinavia.In the early centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. The most typical foods in Estonia are black bread, pork, potatoes, and dairy products. The supreme judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court or Riigikohus, with nineteen justices. Internet voting is used in elections in Estonia. Main article: Economy of Estonia As a member of the European Union, Estonia is considered a high-income economy by the World Bank. The ice-free port of Muuga, near Tallinn, is a modern facility featuring good transshipment capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and new oil tanker off-loading capabilities. Main articles: Fauna of Estonia and Protected areas of Estonia Many species extinct in most of the European countries can be still found in Estonia. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia mentions Tharapita as the superior god of the Oeselians. Today, Estonian society encourages liberty and liberalism, with popular commitment to the ideals of the limited government, discouraging centralised power and corruption. For the subsequent centuries they remained the ruling elite in both cities and the countryside. Each municipality is a unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. Academic higher education in Estonia is divided into three levels: bachelor's, master's, and doctoral studies. It is issued by the Bank of Estonia, the country's central bank. The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. Counties were independent entities and engaged only in a loose co-operation against foreign threats.There is little known of early Estonian pagan religious practices. Estonia has won most of its medals in athletics, weightlifting, wrestling and cross-country skiing. Main articles: Culture of Estonia and List of Estonians The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna, with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Before the Soviet occupation, the Germans and Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council. The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. Today the media is a vibrant and competitive sector. Spiritual practices were guided by shamans, with sacred groves, especially oak groves, serving as places of worship. Credit 2000 eur Eesti. The Prime Minister has the right to appoint a maximum of three such ministers, as the limit of ministers in one government is fifteen.
Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name include and. As in other spheres, Estonian law-making has been successfully integrated with the Information Age. There has historically been a small but noticeable minority of Russian Old-believers near the Lake Peipus area in Tartu County. The Estonian peasant culture came into existence by the end of the Viking Age. Thus, the number of adherents of Lutheranism and Orthodoxy, without regard to citizenship or ethnicity, is roughly equal. Credit 2000 eur Eesti. The domestic top-tier basketball championship is called the Korvpalli Meistriliiga. Estonian public universities have significantly more autonomy than applied higher education institutions. The German government initiated a program to relocate most of Estonia's Baltic German population to the land of the ancestors. Over the next two years almost all other Soviet Republics followed the Estonian lead issuing similar declarations. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. Estonia has four seasons of near-equal length. At the time of this writing, the most known Estonian composers are Arvo Pärt, Eduard Tubin, and Veljo Tormis. Main article: Architecture of Estonia The architectural history of Estonia mainly reflects its contemporary development in northern Europe. A balanced budget, almost non-existent public debt, flat-rate income tax, free trade regime, competitive commercial banking sector, innovative e-Services and even mobile-based services are all hallmarks of Estonia's market economy. The Estonian Academy of Sciences is the national academy of science. Estonia has had very good success at the Olympic games given the country's small population. As the largest city, Tallinn has emerged as a financial centre and the Tallinn Stock Exchange joined recently with the OMX system. Renewed Soviet attacks failed, and in spring, the Estonian army, in cooperation with White Russian forces, advanced into Russia and Latvia. Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to an area called , as the country is still called in Icelandic, with close parallels to the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian terms for the country. In modern times, Jaan Kross and Jaan Kaplinski are Estonia's best known and most translated writers. The largest minority groups are the various Christian denominations, principally Lutheran and Orthodox Christians, with very small numbers of adherents in non-Christian faiths, namely Judaism, Islam and Buddhism. The pact's secret protocol divided Eastern Europe into spheres of influence, with Estonia belonging to the Soviet sphere. Traditionally in summer and spring, Estonians like to eat everything fresh – berries, herbs, vegetables, and everything else that comes straight from the garden. The largest public universities are the University of Tartu, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn University, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonian Academy of Arts; the largest private university is Estonian Business School. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration. Estonia has the third lowest business bribery risk in the world, according to TRACE Matrix. Arvelduslaen maksimaalne intressimäär. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting, gathering and fishing. However, preparing food for winter is still very popular in the countryside. Introduced species, such as the sika deer, raccoon dog and muskrat, can now be found throughout the country. Estonia was not a unified country during the Viking Age, and the area of Ancient Estonia was divided among loosely allied regions